Introduction to Haryana
is a north Indian state with an undoubtedly rich history and culture. The state came into existence in 1966 on 1st of November when it was separated from the state of Punjab on the grounds of different language. As already mentioned, the state has a very rich history, which is indicated by the fact that it was a part of the Korea region during the Mahabharata and the name Haryana finds mention in the writings which date back to 12th Century A.D. The epic war of Mahabharata was fought on the field of Kurukshetra
which is an important part of present day Haryana. The state lies near the northern end of the Aravalli hills, the oldest fold mountains in India. Rocky ridges and isolated hills are easily visible in various parts of Haryana like Gurgaon. Haryana is surrounded by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh
in the north and shares border with Rajasthan in west and south. The eastern border of Haryana with Uttarakhand
is defined by the Yamuna River which cuts it across.
Once a prominent site during Vedic civilization and Indus Valley Civilization Haryana has been a seat of advance habitation and host of activities. The official language of Haryana is Hindi but the local dialect spoken in most areas of the state is Haryana.
The state has also been witness to three battles of Panipat
. Chandigarh is the capital city of Haryana which it shares with Punjab
. The present day Haryana is a fast developing state and has been a major contributor to the green revolution in India. Haryana has also produced many athletes who have won laurels for India in various games including Asian games, Commonwealth games and the Olympics. The state has also emerged as a major industrial and IT hub with Gurgaon being the pioneer. Various automobile industries have been set up in the state in cities like Faridabad
, Gurgaon, Panchkula
, Dharuhera. A major contributor to the Indian economy in terms of agriculture as well as industry, Haryana is a state headed towards being one of the most developed state in India.
The economy of Haryana is driven basically by the software industry, BPO, automobile industry, agriculture and retail. Primarily an agricultural state, Haryana has quickly developed a world-class infrastructure, and has attracted attention as well as investment from the public as well as private sector.
Many companies have set up manufacturing plants in Haryana, the most notable being Maruti Udyog Ltd, Hero, Sony and Alcatel. In addition to these renowned names, Haryana also boasts of a substantial number of small-scale industries. As many as 80,000 small manufacturing plants operate in Haryana, and produce everything from sanitary ware to scientific instruments. Major manufacturing industries produce cars, tractors and motorcycles. Combined, this manufacturing industry accounts for a sizeable chunk of the state's gross earning.
The rapid development of Gurgaon also marks the rise of service industry in Haryana. The city has transformed from a small village to one of the most extensively built cities in the country in just a couple of decades, and the growth here shows no signs of slowing down. From business process outsourcing services to tech startups, Gurgaon houses hundreds of thousands of big and small companies. The hospitality sector of the state has also grown to accommodate the needs of international businessmen and travellers who frequently fly down to the national capital region for work. Dozens of companies that feature in the Top 500 business conglomerates of the world as per S&P CNX have one or more corporate offices in Gurgaon.Haryana once was home to the Bharata dynasty. The incredible dynasty is the reason why India was once known as Bharat.
History of Haryana
The history of Haryana is quite old and dates back to the Indus Valley Civilisation and the Mahabharata. Many scholars are of the belief that the name Haryana has been derived from two Sanskrit Word, Hari (God) and Aranya (forest). A village named Rakhigarhi located in Hisar district in the state is a site which is more than 5000 years old and indicates the presence of the Indus Valley Civilisation as a drainage system, paved roads and terracotta sculptures have been unearthed here. Historians are of the belief that the evidences found at the Rakhigarhi village strongly suggest that Ghaggar Basin is the place where apparently Indus Valley Civilization began and later spread to Indus Valley areas. Mitathal and Banawali are the other two places in Haryana which are sites of Indus Valley Civilization.
Various evidences also point out that the Vedic civilisation was established in Haryana on the banks of River Saraswati. The epic battle of Mahabharata was also fought in Krukshetra along with three other battles in Panipat which is believed to have shaped the present future of India. In Indian mythology Haryana has been called as Brahmavart, the place from where Hindu religion and social system flourished and spread across to the rest of the India. Therefore, it can be said that many concepts and systems of the Hindu religion and society were formulated in the part flat and part hilly lands of Haryana. Also in the greatest epic of all time, the Mahabharata, Kuruskshetra was the place where the fierce battle between Kaurava and Pandava was fought and it was during this fight that Lord Krishna had delivered a celestial sermon which went on to become the most sacred scriptures of Hindu religion.
Delhi in the medieval period was a priced possession; Haryana due to its location and proximity with Delhi served as an entry point to it. Invaders and crusaders from around the world poured in through Haryana which led to fierce battles which shaped the history of India. When the end of the 14th century was nearing, Timur Lang invaded Delhi with the help of his massive army. The Lodhi dynasty, which was ruling Delhi, was defeated in the year 1526 during the first Battle of Panipat. After a period of 30 years, the Mughals led by Akbar were victorious once again in 1556. The third battle of Panipat was fought in the mid-18th century, where the Marathas who were ruling Haryana then were defeated by Afghans who were fighting under Ahmed Shah Abdali.Click Here for Information on History of Ambala | Bahadurgarh | Bhiwani | Faridabad | Jagadhri | Jind | Kurukshetra | Palwal | Panchkula | Panipat | Rewari | Rohtak | Sirsa | Yamunanagar | Thanesar
Geography of Haryana
Haryana is a state which is completely landlocked bordered by Himachal Pradesh and Punjab in the north, Rajasthan in the west and the south and Uttarakhand in the south. Although it lies at the end of the Aravalli hills, most of the Haryana
is plain baring few areas like Gurgaon which shows isolated hills and ridges. It is located between latitudes 27°39' to 30°35' N and between longitude 74°28' and 77°36' E. The altitude of Haryana is variable and lies between the range of 700 to 3600 feet above the sea level. 1,553 km2
area is covered by forest with tropical vegetation. There are four distinct geographical features in Haryana which are:
- Yamuna-Ghaggar plain
- Shivalik Hills to the northeast
- Plains to the southwest
- Aravalli mountain in the south
Flora of Haryana
The flora found in the Haryana mainly
comprise thorny shrubs, deciduous forests and thorns owing to its dry
climate. When the monsoon sets in, few isolated hills and ridges are
covered with green grass. You can also find eucalyptus, Pine, Mulberry,
Kikar, Babul and Shisham trees all over the state. The presence of such
flora ensure that the state is a pioneer in producing wood. Varieties of
succulent herbs with medicinal properties grown in the terrains of the
Did You Know~ After a failed rebellion against the British, the state of Haryana was reorganized and made part of the Punjab province, and stayed this way till after India gained Independence.
~ Haryana has 877 women for every 1000 men, and has a very poor female to male ratio.
~ Haryana has the highest number of rural millionaires in the country.
state also accounts for the most cars, motorcycles and tractors
manufactured in the country.
Due to extensive irrigation system of the state, Haryana has emerged as the leading producer of crops in the country, and agriculture remains the primary occupation for the majority of the residents of the state.Click Here for Information on Geography of Ambala | Bahadurgarh | Bhiwani | Sirsa | Jagadhri | Jind | Kurukshetra | Palwal | Panchkula | Panipat | Rewari | Rohtak | Sonepat | Yamunanagar | Thanesar
Fauna of Haryana
There are a wide variety of fauna found in the state which include mammals like monkeys, cats, leopard in few regions, common mongoose, jackals, Indian fox, neelgai and blackbuck. The forests of Morni Hills and Aravalli Hills region have Wild Boars. You can also find various species of birds at the Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary and Bhindawas Sanctuary. Elephants can also be seen in the Kalesar Forest. Greylag goose, Teal, Bar headed goose, Brahminy duck and common Shelduck, etc. are some of the variety of birds that are seen in Haryana. Variety of scavenger and predator birds like vultures, black kite, tawny eagle, king vulture and greater spotted eagle, etc. are seen in the jungles and the plains in Haryana. Many colourful birds including Coppersmith Barbet, Asian Koel, White Ibis and lapwings are seen in the state. Apart from birds, snakes, lizards, frogs and various varieties of fish are found in Haryana.Haryana is considered one of the wealthiest states in the Union of India.
Climate of Haryana
Haryana experiences a tropical climate and is similar to other states that lie in the northern plains. The summers are extremely hot and the temperature sometime soars up to 45 degree Celsius. The hottest months of the year in Haryana are May, June and July. From August onwards, the state receives moderate rainfall in Shivalik region receiving maximum rainfall and Aravali region receiving the lowest. The winter sets in the month of December and gets as cool as 4-5 Degree Celsius in January. Most of the rainfall occurs in the month of July, August and September sometimes cause minor local floods. Based on area, the largest city in the state of Haryana is actually Faridabad.
Rivers of Haryana
There are many rivers that flow through Haryana. Most of the rivers that flow in the state come from the Himalayas. These rivers have been instrumental in pushing the agriculture in Haryana. Many of these rivers are seasonal and few of them are perennial. River Yamuna
River Yamuna flows through the eastern boundary of the state. Ghaggar River
It is the main seasonal river of Haryana. The river starts from the outer Himalayas between Yamuna and Sutlej. It enters the plain of Haryana in Panchkula district near Pinjore. The course of the river is 460 kms long. Markand River
It is also a seasonal stream that flows from Shivalik Range and reaches Haryana near Ambala. The river becomes quite torrential and devastating during the monsoons and causes flood on a local level. Sahibi River
The river is almost extinct, but used to flow from Jaipur moving towards Rewari and Jhajjar in Haryana.When it comes to economic development, Haryana not only leads the way in India, but is also a leading state in Asia.
Administration in Haryana
Haryana like any other state in India has Governor as the head of state. Governor is appointed by the President of India and is largely a ceremonial post. The governor appoints the chief minister depending on the majority. The tenure of governor is fixed for 5 years, however, can be transferred or discharge of the duties. The chief minister is the elected head of members of the legislature and executes the legislative powers and handle the affairs of the state. The tenure of the chief minister is 5 years or till the time he or she enjoys the majority in both the houses of the state assembly. After the completion of 5 years of government, fresh elections are held and members of a legislative assembly and members of the legislative council are chosen. Legislative functions of Haryana
are performed by the MLAs and MLCs and the executive functions are carried out by bureaucrats. Bureaucrats are the permanent member of the administration. Different activities in Haryana are handled by different departments like law and order, agriculture, industry, electricity and many more. On the political level, these departments are headed by the respective cabinet minister and Minister of states and on the executive level, the chief secretary heads the department. The chief secretary is accountable to the ministers and the chief minister and report to them. The decentralisation of the government ensures that all the departments are handled efficiently and smoothly.
There are 19 districts in Haryana which has District Collector as the head of the district and Superintendent of Police as the head of the police force. Haryana has been divided into 90 constituencies depending on the population of the area. Each constituency sends an MLA (Member of Legislative Assembly) to the Haryana State Legislative. The MLA takes care of all the issues in his or her constituency and allocates funds for such activities.
Culture of Haryana
Haryana boasts of a rich cultural heritage which dates back to Vedic times and the Indus Valley Civilisation. It is very interesting to know that Chyawanprash was first formulated at the Doshi hills by the Saint Chyawyan. Haryana was the site of Indus Valley Civilisation and many places in the state have shown glimpses of the Civilisation. Haryana has also been the seat of old customs like meditation and Yoga. Baba Ramdev is a famous Yoga guru who hails from Haryana. The state is a conservative state and is opposed to young boys and girls falling in love and marry. The culture of Haryana
has been manifested by folk songs and traditional attire. People of Haryana have kept their cultures alive through various folklore. Hindi and Punjabi are the main language of the state. Due to the proximity to Delhi, Punjab and Rajasthan, the culture is deeply influenced by the culture of these states.Haryana is overwhelmingly Hindu, with over 90% of the population following some form of Hinduism.
Cuisines of Haryana
Haryana offers a deletable mix of traditional Indian dishes that can make anyone salivate. The state is primarliy agricultural in nature, and as such its residents are used to having easy access to fresh vegetables and abundant cereals. The flavours and culinary practices of neighbouring states of Punjab and Rajasthan have slowly seeped into Haryana, resulting in a truly amazing cocktail of recipes that satiate ones hungers and delight the tastebuds.
Haryana has also received some of the highest industrial investments in the past few years, leading to a number of national and international eating chains marking their presence here.Food in Haryana
is a charming mixture of traditional and modern, and the sheer amount of choices available will definitely make everyone happy.
Some famous dishes of Haryana include: Rajm, Sukhi Chana Dal, Dahi Bhalle, Sarso ka Saag, Singri ki Sabzi, Bathua Raita, Bajra-Aloo Roti with Makkhan, Churma, Kheer and Kachri ki sabzi.
Tourist Attractions of Haryana
Haryana proves to be an eclectic mix of the rural and the urban, and presents some rather interesting opportunities to those who love to travel.
From booming cities like Gurgaon where thousands of companies from all over the world have their offices and people from all over the country migrate to in order to find a better career, to small villages with barely any connectivity and virtually no modern amenities, the difference that crop up between these two facets of Haryana are startling. This stark difference, however, makes for some very interesting voyages. If you want to travel in Haryana, following are the most frequented and highly recommended places that you can visit:Gurgaon
: The millennial city is the economic heart of Haryana and has made a huge impact on the
economy of the state. It has five star hotels, outstanding dining places, bars, pubs, dance clubs and more; everything that a party loving individual can ask for.Chandigarh
: The capital of the state is shared with neighbouring state of Punjab, and is easily one of the most developed and well planned cities in the entire state. Chandigarh is known as the city of gardens and sees a lot of tourists.Panchkula
: The satellite city of Chandigarh, plans are already in motion to make this city even more well connected with the capital. It gets the name from the fact the five of the major canals that irrigate the lands of Haryana meet here.Kurukshetra
: The site to the epic battle of Mahabharata, Kurukshetra is mostly a pilgrim spot that is most famous for being the spot where Lord Krishna gave the famous sermon to Arjuna, and disclosed the secrets of the Bhagwad Gita
There are a number of cities in the state that are a delight to visit and offer you a taste of the real Haryana. Some of them are: Panipat, Ambala, Hisar, Faridabad, Karnal, Pinjore and Sonipat.
Haryana has a literacy ratio of 76.64%
Shopping Attractions in Haryana
While small stores can be found virtually at every small city and town in Haryana
, when talking about shopping attractions in Haryana, only a few places come to mind. The largest cities in the state have tremendously well developed infrastructures, and consequently have amazing shopping opportunities as well.
Cities like Chandigarh, Gurgaon and Faridabad are dotted with shopping malls where some of the most exclusive brands in the world can also be seen.
Sector 17 in Chandigarh is also a major shopping area and sees tourists from all over the country who make a stop here to buy clothes and various other things at a bargain.
Similarly, the Ambiance Mall in Gurgaon is not just the largest in the entire Delhi NCR region but also in India.
The top cities in Haryana have multiple shopping centres that house national as well as international brands, and one can easily buy apparels, jewellery, gadgets, vehicles, and consumer goods made by some of the most recognizable brands on this planet.The Ambience Mall in Gurgaon is officially the largest shopping centre in the entire country.